The Indus Valley Civilization is separated into three phases: the Early Harappan Phase from 3300 to 2600 BCE, the Mature Harappan Phase from 2600 to 1900 BCE, and the Late Harappan Phase from 1900 to 1300 BCE.
The above map shows the extent of the Indus Valley Civilization during the Mature Harappan Phase. The civilization is highlighted in brown in the area of modern-day Pakistan and northern India. The rest of the map is green and is a partial map of India and the area northwest of Pakistan.
The Indus Valley Civilization was discovered in 1920s by archaeologists DayaramSahani, Mortimer Wheeler, Sri R D Banerjee, Sir John Marshall and Sir Alexander Cunninghum. Experts believe that the Indus Valley Civilization may have had a population of over five million people.
The Indus Valley Civilization was known for its infrastructure and architecture which included the Great Bath, Cranaries and wells.
Here’s a detailed history of the Indus Valley Civilization:
There were a lot of mysteries that came along with the discovery of such an old civilization. Here is a video that will help you understand the mysteries.
Mohenjo-daro Great Bath
The remains of the Indus Valley Civilization cities indicate remarkable organization; there were well-ordered wastewater drainage and trash collection systems and possibly even public baths and granaries, which are storehouses for grain. Most city-dwellers were artisans and merchants grouped together in distinct neighbourhoods. The quality of urban planning suggests efficient municipal governments that placed a high priority on hygiene or religious ritual.
Mold of a seal from the Indus Valley Civilization
Harappan written texts on clay and stone tablets date back to 3300-3200 BCE with trident-shaped, plant-like markings that appear to be written from right to left. While the Harappan texts could be an encoded language or could be related to Indo-European and South Indian language families, the Indus script remains indecipherable without any comparable symbols, and is thought to have evolved independently of the writing in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.
The Indus Scripts
Indus Valley Seals
Indus Valley’s cultural art included sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry, and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta, bronze, and steatite. There were figurines like a figure of a priest-king displaying a beard and patterned robe. Another figurine in bronze, known as the Dancing Girl, is only 11 centimeters high and shows a female figure in a pose that suggests the presence of some choreographed dance form enjoyed by members of the civilization. Terracotta works also included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. In addition to figurines, the Indus River Valley people are believed to have created necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments.
Indus King Statue
Dancing Girl Statue
The Indus Valley Civilization began to rapidly decline around 1800 BCE. The archaeological evidence indicates that trade with Mesopotamia, located largely in modern Iraq, had ended. Writing began to disappear, and the standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation fell out of use quickly. The advanced drainage systems and baths of the great cities were built over or blocked.